The relationship of NR and NAD+
What’s the NR?
Nicotinamide riboside, also known as NR and SRT647, is a pyridine-nucleoside form of vitamin B3 that functions as a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or NAD+. NR blocks degeneration of surgically severed dorsal root ganglion neurons ex vivo and protects against noise-induced hearing loss in living mice.
Like other forms of vitamin B3, nicotinamide riboside is converted by your body into nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), a coenzyme or helper molecule.
NAD+ acts as fuel for many key biological processes, such as (1Trusted Source, 2Trusted Source):
Converting food into energy
Repairing damaged DNA
Fortifying cells’ defense systems
Setting your body’s internal clock or circadian rhythm
However, the amount of NAD+ in your body naturally falls with age (3Trusted Source).
Low NAD+ levels have been linked to health concerns like aging and chronic illnesses, such as diabetes, heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease and vision loss (1Trusted Source).
Interestingly, animal research has found that raising NAD+ levels may help reverse signs of aging and lower the risk of many chronic diseases.
What’s the NAD?
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a cofactor central to metabolism. Found in all living cells, NAD is called a dinucleotide because it consists of two nucleotides joined through their phosphate groups. One nucleotide contains an adenine nucleobase and the other nicotinamide. NAD exists in two forms: an oxidized and reduced form, abbreviated as NAD+ and NADH (H for hydrogen) respectively.
In metabolism, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is involved in redox reactions, carrying electrons from one reaction to another. The cofactor is, therefore, found in two forms in cells: NAD+ is an oxidizing agent – it accepts electrons from other molecules and becomes reduced. This reaction forms NADH, which can then be used as a reducing agent to donate electrons. These electron transfer reactions are the main function of NAD. However, it is also used in other cellular processes, most notably as a substrate of enzymes in adding or removing chemical groups to or from, respectively, proteins, in posttranslational modifications. Because of the importance of these functions, the enzymes involved in NAD metabolism are targets for drug discovery.
In organisms, NAD can be synthesized from simple building-blocks (de novo) from either tryptophan or aspartic acid, each a case of an amino acid; alternatively, more complex components of the coenzymes are taken up from nutritive compounds such as niacin; similar compounds are produced by reactions that break down the structure of NAD, providing a salvage pathway that “recycles” them back into their respective active form.
Some NAD is converted into the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP); its chemistry largely parallels that of NAD, though predominantly its role is as a cofactor in anabolic metabolism.
The superscripted addition sign of NAD ("NAD+") indicates the formal charge on one of its nitrogen atoms; this species actually is a singly charged anion — carrying a (negative) ionic charge of 1 — under conditions of the physiological pH. NADH, in contrast, is a doubly charged anion, because of its two bridging phosphate groups.
How NAD+ and NR work together in the body
At birth, the body has a healthy supply of NAD+. However, it diminishes with age.
To date, the most common way of boosting those levels later in life has been through strict calorie reduction.
NR is found in very low levels in food sources, such as whole milk, and it’s the synergy between NAD+ and NR that sustains healthy living. However, as the amount of NAD+ in the body declines naturally with age, the energy level of numerous enzymes is also decreased.
Since NAD+ is required to convert fuel into energy that powers muscles, circulates blood, and initiates the repair process for damaged DNA, diminishing levels of this molecule are what causes aging to become evident.
The new research showed that use of NR as a supplement can lead to similar health benefits that occur when NAD+ levels are boosted through a strict calorie reduction program.
Researchers looked for measures of cardiovascular health, metabolic function, motor performance, and exercise capacity. They found that NR may normalize systolic blood pressure and arterial stiffness — two key independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
“There’s a lot of excitement in the area of boosting NAD+ levels as a way to reverse aging,” says Christopher Martens, PhD, who linked increased NAD+ levels to an improvement in a wide array of specific conditions in animal models.
He adds, “Now that we have shown that this is well-tolerated and effective at boosting NAD+, we are at a place where we are ready to start seeing if these health benefits translate to humans.”
If you are looking for a vegetarian Nicotinamide Riboside Chloride supplement, we recommend Tru Niagen Nicotinamide Riboside supplement. This supplement uses NIAGEN, the company’s patented NR product. The manufacturing company deals only with Nicotinamide Riboside supplements and therefore, one can rest assured that the supplements created by the company are of very high quality. The Tru Niagen Nicotinamide Riboside supplement comes in easy-to-consume capsules, which are quite easy-to-swallow. Users are required to take only one capsule per day.
However, if you are looking for a gluten, egg, BPA, nuts, preservatives and dairy-free product, we recommend putting your money in the Thorne ResveraCel Nicotinamide Riboside supplement. This supplement combines NR with flavonoids. Together, these two enhance sirtuin activity. More importantly, Thorne ResveraCel claims that it does four rounds of testing on each of its supplement and thus, the company’s supplements are perfectly safe. Further, these supplements are produced in a cGMP certified facility in the United States and a TGA certified facility in Australia.
The demand for Nicotinamide Riboside supplements has increased considerably over the last few years, primarily because Nicotinamide Riboside has many advantages. If you are looking to foray into the Nicotinamide Riboside supplements market, the first thing you must do is find yourself a trustworthy and reliable raw materials supplier. Where to buy Nicotinamide Riboside Chloride powder in bulk? The answer is Cofttek.
Cofttek is a raw materials supplier that came into existence in 2008 and in only about a decade, the company has established its presence in several countries. Other than producing reliable products, the company is also focussed on making advances in the field of biotechnology, chemical technology and chemical testing. The company is also committed to quality research, which gives it an edge over other suppliers in the market. The Nicotinamide Riboside Chloride powder provided by the company comes in batches of 25 kgs and can be trusted for quality. Moreover, the company has excellent sales and customer support team which will take care of all your needs and enquiries in real-time. This, if you want to buy Nicotinamide Riboside Chloride powder in bulk, trust only Cofttek.
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Cantó, Carles, Riekelt H. Houtkooper, Eija Pirinen, Dou Y. Youn, Maaike H. Oosterveer, Yana Cen, Pablo J. Fernandez-Marcos, et al. The NADthplus Precursor Nicotinamide Riboside Enhances Oxidative Metabolism and Protects against High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity Cell Metabolism 15, no. 6 (June 2012): 838–47.
Frederick, David W., Emanuele Loro, Ling Liu, Antonio Davila, Karthikeyani Chellappa, Ian M. Silverman, William J. Quinn, et al. Loss of NAD Homeostasis Leads to Progressive and Reversible Degeneration of Skeletal Muscle Cell Metabolism 24, no. 2 (August 2016): 269–82.
Khan, Nahid A, Mari Auranen, Ilse Paetau, Eija Pirinen, Liliya Euro, Saara Forsström, Lotta Pasila, et al. Effective treatment of mitochondrial myopathy by nicotinamide riboside, a vitamin B 3 EMBO Molecular Medicine 6, no. 6 (April 2014): 721–31.
Dellinger, Ryan W., Santiago Roel Santos, Mark Morris, Mal Evans, Dan Alminana, Leonard Guarente, and Eric Marcotulli. Repeat dose NRPT (nicotinamide riboside and pterostilbene) increases NADthplus levels in humans safely and sustainably: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study npj Aging and Mechanisms of Disease 3, no. 1 (November 2017).